Sunday, January 26, 2020

Pre Bored Steel H Piling System

Pre Bored Steel H Piling System Although Hong Kong is featured of its Skyscrapers all over the world, and it seems that H-Piling system may not have enough bearing capacity to their superstructure, there are still many servicing buildings and small-scale infrastructure developing, the loading of which is capable to be borne by H-Piling system, in the city. In the following words, a brief introduction over Pre-Bored Steel H-Piling system will be presented associated with related cases applying such kind of piling system in Hong Kong in order to draw a more detailed picture over the application of Pre-Bored Steel H-Piling system in Hong Kong. The principle of Pre-Bored Steel H-Piling system is similar to the Bored Piling system. Both of them are replacement pile and require boring the initial hole on the site for the insertion of the temporary or permanent steel casing, depending on its design. After the completion of the boring process, the soil and rock inside the steel casing will then be extracted and the workers will place the reinforcement material inside the steel casing. That is the major variation between Bored Piling and Pre-Bored Steel H-Piling System. For Bored Piling, the reinforcement bars will be bent in order to form the circular cage (Figure 1). However, H Steel Pile will be the reinforcement material in Pre-bored H-Piling system. Grouting is then started after placing reinforcement material to form the pile. Since the diameter of Bored Piling can be larger than Pre-Bored H-Piling, the former one can typically take up more loading than the latter one. Therefore, small-scale construction project is most likely to use Pre-Bored Steel H-Piling system in Hong Kong. The cases introduced later are small in scale, but they do play an important role in our city. D:yr1 sem1BRE 291 Con techProject Photos (Construction site)Week 4 23102009CIMG0341.JPG Figure 1: Reinforcement Bar for Bored Piling Figure 2: H-Pile for Reinforcement in Pre- Bored H-Piling system The first case being examined is the construction of Queen Mary Interchange near Queen Mary Hospital and Pok Fu Lam Road. It is a road improvement project initiated by the local government at the two junctions, which are in Sassoon Road and Bisney Road with Pok Fu Lam Road, on Hong Kong Island. The aim of this project is to relieve the congestion problem existing in these roads by constructing a new interchange, comprising of several bridges. C:UsersAlan KwokDesktopperspec.jpg Figure 3: Model of proposed development Figure 4: Queen Mary Interchange à ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ Still in the progress of construction As we can see in the model of proposed development (Figure 3), the interchange, which located at the bottom of the figure, is locating on a slope. Since the the soil in slope exert a considerable amount of bending and tensile stress, according to Tomlinson (1994), H-pile is able to withstand such kind of extreme situation due to its unique H design. Therefore, the authority concerned decided to build the interchange with Pre-Bored Drill-in Steel H-Piles. Moreover, the short erection time and economical construction cost are also the reason to make use of such kind of piling system in this project. According to Kumaraswamy, Mohan (2002), the whole process of developing a Pre-Bored drill-in H pile, i.e. pre-drilling, drilling and grouting, can be finished in 3 working days. We can also see that the site is not so spacious enough to place some large-scale machinery during the pile development. The development of Pre-Bored Drill-in Steel H-Piles can overcome this problem because the diam eter of this pile is only 600mm in this case The size of drilling techniques can be controlled and fitted into the congested site. C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop1000.jpg Figure 5: The congested site on a steep slope in this construction of Queen Mary Interchange Before the development of pile in this project, several raw materials and tools are required to present. Here is the table showing what are needed, C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop8.jpg Circular steel casing of internal diameter 600mm and thickness 25mm C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop10.jpg Steel H-pile, which will be inserted in the steel casing C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop843.jpg Hydraulic hammer mounted on crawler crane Table 1: Major Material list for constructing pile of Queen Mary Interchange In the very first stage of developing Pre-Bored Drill-in Pile in this project, engineers will have a pre-drilling through the soil layers and rock within the site in order to identify the underground condition, such as the rock head levels and the strength of the soil. It is an important procedure since it will determine the type, length, etc of the pile. Any wrong measurement, especially overestimate the soil/rock supporting capacity, will make the whole project lose ground because the whole structure will be ruined, the typical case is the Block E and F of Yu Chui Court, demolished after discovering the corruption scandal, which developed by piles shorter than the standard and cause possible dangerous to its users . After the completion of soil investigation and analysis, the engineers would then design and choose the most suitable piling system for different project. In the construction of Queen Mary Interchange, the engineers found out that the Pre-bored piling system is suitable for construction of high-way bridges at the steep slope on the site. The site-workers firstly pressed the circular steel casing inside the ground through the help of Hydraulic Hammer which is mounted on a crawler crane. The reason to plug the steel casing into the ground was to prevent the soil from collapsing inside the hole, which would be placed H-pile inside it, during the process of drilling. C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop1.jpg C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop9.jpg Figure 6: Inserting circular steel casing into ground by hydraulic hammer mounted on crawler crane Figure 7: Connecting two steel casings by welding when the length is not enough The process in Figure 7 happened when the steel casings being installed were not long enough to reach the target depth into the soil. By welding the end of two steel casings, the total length of it can be extended. For the inadequate length of H-Pile, their length can also be extended through welding. When the steel casing reached the bed rock level and formed a socket, the next stage is to remove those soil and rock inside the steel tube, as shown in Figure 8. The ground was drilled with a hammer mounted on a drilling rig so as to remove the obstruction underground. This process could enable the hard rock and pressed soil to become extractable out of the steel casing. In this project, the obstructions were then extracted out by flushing the case with water and compressed air. The compressed air acted at the initial force and the water acted as a transferring medium to carry out the obstruction out of the earth. The above two procedures will take turns to start until all of the obstruction inside the tube were wholly carried out. C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop2.jpg C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop3.jpg Figure 8: Removing obstruction by drilling with down-the-hole hammer mounted on drilling rig Figure 9: Withdrawing soil from inside the casing by flushing with water and compressed air The H-Piles would then be installed inside the empty steel casing after the clearance of obstruction inside. Meanwhile, a 20mm diameter grout tube was also placed to full length of the pile in order to prepare its grouting process later on. C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop4.jpg Figure 10: Installing steel H-pile inside the empty steel casing The grouting process is to have a re-bonding between the soil and the H-piles with the suitable grade of concrete by tremmie method from the bottom to the top of the casing. Tremmie method is a concrete-pouring method in some dry spaces underground deeply. Since a tube is used to pour the concrete from the bottom, the force of falling concrete can be controlled through shortening the distance of freely movement of the concrete. It can prevent the concrete from improperly mixed when it is placed at the bottom of the casing which result in voids and air packet which can cause possible danger to the whole structure. The temporary steel casings were extracted gradually when the fresh concrete was pouring inside since the bonding force of the concrete is not strong at this moment. However, engineers maintained the bottom of the casing at a level of at least 2 meters below the grout surface to ensure that there was enough time range for the concrete to form the circular shape. The grouting operation was stopped when the uncontaminated grout flowed out of the hole to ensure the purity of concrete poured inside the casing. C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop5.jpg C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop7.jpg Figure 11: Grouting the steel casing with suitable grade of concrete by tremmie method Figure 12: Extracting the steel casing while grouting is going on C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop6.jpg C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop11.jpg Figure 13: Grouting the steel casing with suitable grade of concrete by tremmie method Figure 14: Extracting the steel casing while grouting is going on The finishing of grouting process means that the whole development of Pre-Bored Drill-in H-Pile system is come into the end soon. After the dewatering process of the concrete attached to the H-Pile itself, the drilled-in H-Pile was finished. Figure 13 shows the product of the above stages. It is a group of drilled-in H-Piles that were formed a combined pile cap for the highway bridges in Queen Mary Interchange. To verify its bear capacity, loading test was taken place in order to test its vertical deflection. Once the test was passed, the superstructure developments were then taken place. Pre-Bored Steel H-Piling system is not only applied in local road constructions, but it is also applied in some small-scale construction of buildings in Hong Kong. There is a typical example, which is the construction of Sheung Wan Stormwater Pumping Station (SWSPS) on Hong Kong Island. It is a single-storey building with a underground water tank with 11 meters deep at the Chung Kong Road, which is the waterfront of Sheung Wan. This project was to alleviate the flooding problem in Sheung Wan. C:UsersAlan KwokDesktop391 projectProduct of construction.png Figure 15: Sheung Wan Stormwater Pumping Station Figure 16: Location Plan of Sheung Wan Stormwater Pumping Station According to the paper presented by Leung,Li and Leung (2009), the site of the Sheung Wan Stormwater Pumping station was reclaimed in 1982. The material used for reclaimed it are as followed, Fill (medium grained granite) Marine Deposit Alluvium Completely Decomposed Granite (CDG) Originally the engineers decided to build up this service station with 60 numbers of large diameter bored piles, and the diameter of which are ranged from 1.2 meters to 1.5 meters. Figure 17: The Original Bored Pile Layout Plan of SWSPS Figure 18: The Geological Section Across the site (LandÃÆ' ¯Ãƒâ€ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Seawall) But later on, the contractor of this project advised the government to build up the superstructure and sub-structure over a combination of rock socketted H-piles, mini-piles and raft foundation. The government finally accepted the advice from the contractor and starting the construction process. Referring back to the Figure 17, the PC5 Zone, all of the piling would be changed into the Pre-Bored H-piling system. For the other zoning, mini-piles were used. The major reason to change the piling system, as the paper disclosed, was because of the cost effectiveness. First of all, since the diameter of the steel casing used in Pre-Bored Steel H-Piling system is far smaller than the bored piling system. The grouting process of the former one will consuming less amount of concrete than the latter one, which can reduce the cost of development. Table 2: The difference in pile foundation between the initial and final plan Besides the cost consideration factor, the time used for developing these two different kinds of piling systems is different. As what Kumaraswamy, Mohan (2002) said, the whole process of developing a Pre-bored H-piling system only cost around 3 days. However, the development of a foundation pile normally takes up more than 3 days. Since the amount of pile developed in this project is large, i.e. nearly 50 piles are changed from bored pile to pre-bored H piling system. The time cost saved through the final plan is considerable. In the aspect of technical operation, the required pile capacity of the pumping station is 6900 kN. For bored piling, For bored piling (The government of HKSAR,2006), typical sizes of these piles range from 1 m to 3 m, with lengths up to about 80 m and working loads up to about 45 000 kN. When high grade and heavy steel H-pile section is used, the load-carrying capacity can exceed 5 500 kN. We can see that the loading capacity of bored piling is far more than the loading requirement of the pumping station. However, we can also discover that a maximum of 1400kN was not be able to supported by Rock Socketted Steel H-Pile. The solution, as shown in Figure 18, is to place in 4 numbers of T50 steel bars inside each of the casing for reinforcement so as to remove the discrepancy. Therefore, the final plan can enable a more efficient use in the resource than the initial one. That is why it is reasonable for the government to change its decision. Figure 19: Typical detail of Rock Socketted H-piles of Alternative Design For the developing processes of the Pre-bored socketted H-piling system, most of them are the same as the Pre-bored Drilled-in piling system. The major difference between them is that the steel casing used in Pre-bored socketted H-piling system is permanently fixed inside the soil, while the steel casing used in Pre-bored Drilled-in piling system was temporary in used. They are removed during grouting. In this project, the rock socket H-piles were installed through the help of concentric overburden drilling system with air-flushing. It uses a rotary-percussive action for drilling and uses air flushing for removal of debris before casting in the H-pile inside the tube and grouting. In conclusion, the loading bearing capacity of Pre-Bored Steel H-Piling system is relatively lower than the other common piling system used in Hong Kong. However, due to its mobility during installation and its strength, it is still also commonly applied in some small-scale development in local projects. -The End-

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Retailing in India: The impact of hypermarkets Essay

1. How might a hypermarket located in India appeal to consumers and orient them to shopping in larger stores? – The trick lies in differentiating themselves from local kirana stores. If a hypermarket is offering same products, a customer will obviously prefer kirana store over the hypermarket because of the convenience and long years of service. Turning shopping into an experience should be the differentiating factor. This can be done by understanding the consumption basket of a consumer in an area, introducing new products in the hypermarket along with the old ones, having products catering to latest fads and fashions, and helping and assisting customers at every step of buying process. Also, promotions and discounts aligned with holidays and festivals would be a good way to appeal consumers. 2. Is the Indian government’s willingness to spend $500 billion to improve the nation’s infrastructure good news for international retailers? Why or why not? – The Indian government’s willingness to spend $500 billion to improve infrastructure is certainly good news for international retailers, because a good infrastructure helps stores to decrease their costs and improve profits. 3. Identify the main changes that mark Indian consumers. How can international retailers learn more about India’s youthful demographic? – More than half of India’s current population is younger than 25 years. – Due to the jobs created by IT and services boom, young consumers have more disposable income. – Due to the ever growing education scenario, students are also rising as a very important consumer class. – Nuclear working families have less time to shop. International retailers can study trends of migration of people of Indians origin, understand changing demographics in rural and urban areas due to urbanization of towns and up-gradation of villages, study penetration of retail product organizations in various markets and indigenous competition, and create models that include best practices of kirana stores that appeal

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Homework - What Is It?

Homework - What Is It? The Nuiances of Homework Instead, you can choose the classes that you want to perform yourself and make it possible for the rest of us. Students should read for no less than 20 minutes daily! When they don't get sufficient time for preparation they get a poor grade in examinations. For teachers, it is nearly not possible to assess the comprehension of each individual student every single day. Homework - What Is It? Write my English assignment' is among the commonest searches on the net and we are certain you'll be pleased to know our experts can construct an impeccable assignment for you. The Help Desk panel is only a text or call away to help you in the very best way possible towards the assignment. Students were requested to select one of 3 articles. One of the greatest features of our English assignment help services is that you don't have to shell out a huge amount to receive a high excellent assignment from us. There's a service which may help you. Whether you require quick and reasonable aid in solving algebra, we are here in order to aid you with an instant high-level aid for low rates and discounts for repeat customers. Our state-of-the-art, ground-breaking program is supposed to cater to individual homework requirements and offer one-on-one help. The Homework Chronicles All sorts of customized writing are strictly written consistent with guidelines supplied by the customers. Unique kinds of homework was proven to benefit unique populations. In any event, you will need to do a little bit of research. The issue lies in the way in which the majority of the research was conducted. The subject of homework for young children is one which is fiercely debated in the area of early childhood education. 1 child might benefit from building a list the evening before so she remembers what she wants to bring to school. Besides a viral or other illness, all children ought to be at school every single day. Self-smart chil dren frequently have excellent insights due to their deep-and-wide thinking. Homework Homework mode is most suitable for the situations where all the students aren't readily available to choose the quiz at precisely the same time. For writing an essay with the correct content, students will need to structure the essay and make an outline for it. With the significant effort of the online tutors, they can get rid of educational fear easily and have a positive spirit regarding studies. Some students do not have a thing to do except only studying. A whole lot of students must be the part-time workers to permit expensive education. There are only a few varieties of homework that students will need to do. Doing homework is a must but excessive pressure in homework submission is bad for the students. Sometimes student's homework might be a true challenge. It is possible to look above their homework and help them discover the way the topics are relevant and how they may be relevant later on. In a way you may say it's part of mathematics. The solution to your problems is 123Writings. On occasion the stresses of normal life can develop and you both will turn out to be so stressed that you wind up saying or doing things you don't really mean. For us a customer's needs and wishes are the best priority all the moment. Put another way, the factor will have the ability to reclaim their money from you in the event the customer doesn't pay. In such case you're welcome to acquire the on-line homework help at a very low price, with in the quick time and of a high quality! As it will help you in receiving online class inside an instance and after completing it you will have the ability to finish off your official works too. Be certain to assign the quantity of time after the time begins and the volume you will take. Students today have a tendency to have a mean of one or two hours of homework each night a hefty chunk of time, especially once you consider that a bulk of their day is spent in classes anyway.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Caroline Herschel (Astronomer and Mathematician)

Dates: March 16, 1750 - January 9, 1848 Known for: first woman to discover a comet; helping discover the planet UranusOccupation: Mathematician, astronomerAlso known as: Caroline Lucretia Herschel Background, Family: Father: Isaac Herschel, court musician and amateur astronomerSiblings included: William Herschel, musician and astronomer Education: educated at home in Germany; studied music in England; taught mathematics and astronomy by her brother, William About Caroline Herschel: Born in Hanover, Germany, Caroline Herschel gave up on getting married after a bout with typhus left her growth stunted seriously. She was well-educated beyond traditional womens work, and trained as a singer, but she choose to move to England to join her brother, William Herschel, then an orchestra leader with a hobby in astronomy. In England Caroline Herschel began assisting William with his astronomical work, while she trained to become a professional singer, and began to appear as a soloist. She also learned mathematics from William, and began helping him with his astronomy work, including grinding and polishing mirrors, and copying his records. Her brother William discovered the planet Uranus, and credited Caroline for her help in this discovery. After this discovery, King George III appointed William as court astronomer, with a paid stipend. Caroline Herschel abandoned her singing career for astronomy. She helped her brother with calculations and paperwork, and also made her own observations. Caroline Herschel discovered new nebulae in 1783: Andromeda and Cetus and later that year, 14 more nebulae. With a new telescope, a gift from her brother, she then discovered a comet, making her the first woman known to have done so. She went on to discover seven more comets. King George III heard of her discoveries and added a stipend of 50 pounds annually, paid to Caroline. She thus became the first woman in England with a paid government appointment. William married in 1788, and though Caroline at first was skeptical of having a place in the new home, she and her sister-in-law became friends, and Caroline had more time for astronomy with another woman in the house to do the domestic chores. She later published her own work cataloguing stars and nebulae. She indexed and organized a catalogue by John Flamsteed, and she worked with John Herschel, Williams son, to publish a catalog of nebulae. After Willliams death in 1822, Caroline had to return to Germany, where she continued writing. She was recognized for her contributions by the King of Prussia when she was 96, and Caroline Herschel died at 97. Caroline Herschel was, along with Mary Somerville, appointed to honorary membership in the Royal Society in 1835, the first women to be so honored. Places: Germany, England Organizations: Royal Society